Dr William Van Gordon, from the University of Derby’s Centre for Psychological Research, discusses how we can use mindful breathing to reduce stress.
The Top Ten Mistakes Made by Meditation Practitioners
-By Dr William Van Gordon-
In line with growing interest into meditation amongst scientists, medical professionals and the general public, more and more publications are explaining how we should practice meditation. However, few resources focus on how meditation can go wrong.
A Breath of Fresh Air
Are you breathing? Are you aware that you are alive? These may seem like strange questions but look closely at what they are asking. Are you truly aware that you are breathing and are you truly aware that you are living? Are you fully aware of your in-breath and your out-breath? Whether that breath is long or short, deep or shallow, rough or smooth? Are you aware of the point where breath enters the body at the tips of the nostrils? Are you aware of the empty space that exists between the in-breath and out-breath? Is your breathing natural and relaxed or are you forcing it? Does your out-breath stop when you breathe out, or does it continue throughout space and time? Is your in-breath your in-breath or is it made up of other peoples’ out-breath? Can you see your out-breath in the trees, rivers, and oceans? Can you see your breath the eyes of the person you dislike, or in the tears of the homeless person who is alone and neglected by society?
Let’s leave the breath for a moment and examine our thoughts, words, and actions during the day. Are you fully aware of all that you experience during the day? Or does the day simply happen? We begin our day with getting up in the morning and before we know it, the sun has set and we’re falling back to sleep. The day has passed. It will never return again. Another day of our lives has expired. Perhaps on Sunday you clean the house but I ask you – are you fully present when you clean the house or are you thinking about Facebook or what you’ll be watching on the television later in the evening? Alternatively, are you thinking about returning to work on Monday and the various tasks you will have to complete? The days pass, the weeks pass, we can’t wait for our holidays and they pass too. The years pass, and we get old and die.
Life is a rare and fragile gift. If we are fortunate, we may live for 100 years. Each and every moment contained within those 100 years is unique. Nobody else will experience that moment and it will never arise again. It was born, it lived, and it died. It has gone forever. If we are not fully aware of all that we see, hear, smell, taste, and touch in each and every moment then we have to conclude that we are not fully alive. The person who chooses not to be fully aware of their life is no better than a walking corpse. Would you agree?
We are born with an in-breath and we leave this world with an out-breath. That which happens in between is the precious gift of life. Be aware of it. Breathe it moment by moment. Enjoy it. Live it. It is yours to live.
Dr William Van Gordon from the Centre for Psychological Research at University of Derby discusses mindfulness as a solution to stress-related illness.
Last week we introduced mindfulness and the benefits of mindfulness training programs that have been offered to employees in corporations in the West. A mindfulness intervention called Meditation Awareness Training (MAT), introduced by Dr. William Van Gordon of the University of Derby (UK) is an example of research-based programs with great impacts on employee performance, productivity, engagement and leadership skills. This week we are providing more research findings of the program, and another example of mindfulness intervention program initiated by Google.
This article was published today in the Bangkok Post and covers my research:
Imagine a typical day at the office. You wake up and leave the house early in the morning to avoid the traffic. The journey to work is a little hectic and then you work your way through a bunch of emails. You have to plan and manage projects and complex tasks concurrently. You’re forced to work faster and produce more results within less time, while being able to be creative and innovative. There are constant interruptions throughout the day, including unexpected telephone calls and instant messages from social media channels. You are required to coordinate with team members and other stakeholders from different cultures and time zones, and you attend one meeting after another. By the afternoon, perhaps you start to feel exhausted and restless. And then, to keep up with an ever-increasing workload, you continue to work late into the evening. By the time you leave work, there is a strong chance that you feel drained due to stress, anxiety, exhaustion, and frustration.
The Mandala of the Present Moment
Today’s blog corresponds to the self-archive version of a paper I wrote with Dr. Edo Shonin and Dr. Javier Garcia-Campayo called the Mandala of the Present Moment. The paper was recently published in Mindfulness and the reference is included at the bottom of the post.
‘Mandala’ is a Sanskrit word generally used to refer to a painting, diagram, or architectural structure with a particular symbolic meaning. Mandalas are often artistically beautiful and can be used to depict stages of the spiritual journey, the teachings or realm of a spiritual adept, or even life or the universe more generally. Perhaps the most well-known type of mandala are those comprising colored sand that can take many weeks to construct. In certain meditation traditions, the offering of a sand mandala concludes with the mandala being wiped with a brush to signify impermanence. Although mandalas often have elaborate designs, they can also be very simple. For example, there is an amusing story about the Indian Buddhist saint Naropa who was walking in the desert with his teacher, Tilopa. In his typical spontaneous manner, Tilopa decided to perform an initiation but Naropa had nothing on his person to offer his teacher. Consequently, Naropa proceeded to urinate in the sand in order to create a mandala that he could offer to his teacher. This was acceptable to Tilopa who then continued with the transmission.
Some people find mandalas to be useful aids to meditation and spiritual practice. Amongst other applications, they can help spiritual practitioners work mindfully (i.e., during the creation of the mandala), engage in purification and healing practices, request blessings from spiritual teachers, and remember the transitory nature of life and phenomena. This paper explores how the mandala principle can be used to deepen our relationship with the present moment.
Center and periphery
Although mandalas are often constructed as visual objects (whether using materials or during visualization in meditation), the mandala principle extends much beyond creating a piece of art or visual structure. Indeed, one translation of the term mandala is that of ‘center and periphery’. On first impression, ‘center and periphery’ might appear dualistic and to thus contradict some of the core wisdom (Sanskrit: prajñā) principles of meditation (e.g., that phenomena are interconnected to the extent that there is no clear divide between them). However, notwithstanding this limitation, for the reasons outlined below the notion of center and periphery can be an insightful means of understanding the mandala.
We experience the world at the level of the mind. This is a matter of basic science and is demonstrated by the process of saltatory conduction through the central nervous system. When our sensory receptors in, for example, the eyes or ears are stimulated (i.e., by light or sound), a chemical signal is transmitted through the central nervous system to the brain. However, what we perceive is the brain’s reconstruction of reality based on how it interprets this signal. Consequently, the truth is that we never directly see, hear, smell, taste, or touch phenomena. We only experience our mind’s reconstruction of them. We have the sensation of movement, but we never actually go anywhere. We have the sensation of seeing, but we never truly see something. The process of experiencing life at the level of the mind corresponds to the ‘center’ aspect of the mandala. We are all at the center of our worlds. Nobody else shares our experiences. Other individuals may share similar experiences, but these experiences are not the same. They are not the same because each living being interprets and relates to the world differently.
Although we are at the center of our world, we are not the only living being or phenomenon that lives in the world. We interact and co-exist with all other phenomena in the universe. If a single piece of dust floating in distant space did not exist, then the entire universe would not exist. The existence of one thing implies the existence of all things. A person’s mind exists because all minds exist, and in their construction of reality, they knowingly or unknowingly interact with every other mind in the universe. This is the ‘periphery’ aspect of the mandala.
Thus, rather than being dualistic, at a more profound level the term ‘center and periphery’ implies the whole of reality. Since reality can only unfold in the present moment, then a mandala can only exist in the present moment. Depending upon our view of reality, we can think of the present moment comprising many or just one mandala. We could think of there being a different mandala corresponding to the life of each living being, but we could also deem that an individual experiences many different mandalas during the course of a single day. For example, we create, experience, and then conclude a mandala when we eat breakfast. We could think of this as a short-term mandala. Other examples of short-term mandalas might be a thought or a single in-breath or out-breath. But we also experience a mandala when studying a new discipline, with our career, and with each individual with whom we have a relationship. Perhaps we could think of these as slightly longer-term mandalas.
Based on the above conceptualization, we can say that there exist mandalas within mandalas. In fact, there are actually an infinite number of mandalas, and the extent to which a mandala can encompass other mandalas is unlimited. For example, a city might be considered a mandala that exists as part of the larger mandala of the country in which it resides. But a country forms part of the mandala of the world, that in turn, forms part of the mandala of the universe. And the universe forms part of the mandala of the multiverse. According to string theory proposed by the field of quantum physics, the multiverse comprises multiple dimensions and therefore exists as part of a mandala that is much larger or even of infinite magnitude.
We like to refer to this larger-scale mandala as the ‘mandala of the present moment’. The mandala of the present moment encompasses everything that exits and comprises an infinite number of smaller mandalas. However, the slightest movement or change in any one of these smaller mandalas influences all other mandalas. The energy and intention carried by a single breath or thought reverberates throughout time and space. When we start to understand this, it is a huge responsibility. It is a responsibility because we appreciate that although the mandala representing our individual lives might seem small or insignificant, with each thought, word, and action, we touch and influence the entire present moment as well as all future moments.
Crafting the mandala
Much like crafting a mandala using sand, we each have the capacity to craft the mandala of the present moment. Crafting the mandala of the present moment might sound like it requires a lot of planning and mental energy. However, applying too much thought or mental energy doesn’t embody the essence of mindful living. To be good at crafting the present moment, all we have to do is remain aware of it. Remember that we are at the center of our worlds and that this center is connected to the periphery. Therefore, if we practice present-moment awareness and infuse our thoughts, words, and actions with gentleness and compassion, this positive intention touches everything residing at the periphery of our mandala.
Thinking in terms of a center and periphery is a conceptually useful means of relating to the mandala principle, particularly if we understand that the center and periphery encompass everything. Nevertheless, it is perhaps useful to reiterate that conceptualizations such as center and periphery are relative and limited notions. As previously discussed, we live out reality at the level of the mind and that our perception of phenomena might not be as reliable as we think. Therefore, we should ask ourselves whether, in our mind-made reality, there truly exists a here and there, a near and far, a center and periphery, or a before and after? When we dream, do we really move anywhere, do we perform actions, and does the periphery occupy a different location than the center? What is the difference between dream reality and what we call waking reality? Are these realities not both the product of the mind? These are important questions to ask ourselves.
When we start to intuitively realize that we are living out reality at the level of the mind, we can move beyond concepts such as ‘center and periphery’ and ‘space and time’. Then, much like the rising sun that spreads warmth across the earth, we can establish ourselves in meditative equanimity and touch the minds of all living beings with joyful and compassionate energy. We can do this because in the realm of the mind, there exist no physical boundaries. In fact, if a spiritual practitioner’s intention is pure enough, their joyful and compassionate energy can touch the heart and mind of a person sitting in the same room just as easily as it can touch somebody on the other side of the world. Of course, how other minds interpret this spiritual energy, and what they choose to do with it, is a matter for them.
The beautiful thing is that when we extend the roots of our being deep into the mandala of the present moment, the present moment starts to work with us. Tuning into the present moment allows us to see that there is a solution to every problem. The present moment doesn’t want us to suffer. It wants to help us and it wants us to be well and happy. But to access the wisdom of the present moment, we need to relax into it and accept it as our closest friend. A few years ago, we conducted a randomized controlled trial involving managers working in office-based roles. The managers received training in an intervention that we developed called Meditation Awareness Training. We embedded a qualitative arm within the study and analyzed manager’s responses to a series of questions. The analysis yielded an outcome that we referred to as phenomena feedback effect. It appeared that when they were meditatively aware and able to let go of concepts and of wanting to be noticed or promoted, the managers were, at times, able to enter into a dialogue with the present moment. They reported that the present moment started to point out the way for them. When I (William) observed this outcome, it brought a tear to my eye. It was a tear of joy because some of those participants had experienced something very beautiful. They had, for a short time, entered into a loving relationship with the mandala of the present moment and been touched by its wisdom. I hope they managed to maintain and develop this relationship.
Wiping clean the mandala
As discussed previously, wiping the mandala clean is used as a means of remembering impermanence. This is basically what happens when we die. The mandala of life is wiped clean so that we can begin the construction of a new mandala. Although the mandala representing our life will be wiped clean whether we like it or not, the good news is that as individuals walking the path of meditation, we can familiarize ourselves with the wiping process. Developing this familiarity will help us to remain calm, centered, and without fear when the time comes for our mandala to be wiped clean.
The way to foster this familiarity is to become skilled in the art of letting go. At the moment an experience arises, it ceases to exist. The present moment is like a flowing river that does not remain static even for an instant. It simply doesn’t make sense to try to hold onto something that is continuously changing. This is the essence of mindful living. Mindfulness is about being aware of experience as it unfolds at the level of the mind, and then letting go of that experience so that we can embrace the next experience with a mind that is open and untainted by concepts or expectations. A good mindfulness practitioner is an individual that wipes their mandala clean every day, or ideally, many times each day. By choosing to practice letting go and wiping clean our mandala on a daily basis, when the time comes for us to leave this world, the process won’t be so painful or confusing. In fact, there is no reason why we can’t thoroughly enjoy our transition from this world to the next. Becoming adept at the practice of letting go means that, paradoxically, we can find continuity at the time of death. In other words, it is possible to familiarize ourselves with the process of impermanence to such an extent, that a sense of permanence begins to emerge. The realization that impermanence is permanent serves as a point of reference or refuge for the mind during the natural process of our mandala being wiped clean by the brush of impermanence.
The mandala of letting go
As previously discussed, letting go is paramount to the crafting of our life mandala (and therefore the mandala of the present moment), and letting go is also important when the time comes for our life mandala to be wiped clean. It is easy to advise people to ‘let-go’ but we would like to conclude by highlighting that letting go is not easy. It is difficult to let go of our experiences because we have become so accustomed to holding onto them. Furthermore, to greater or lesser extents, the teachings of all authentic spiritual traditions encourage us to foster love and compassion for all forms of life. Being loving and compassionate requires us to reach out to people with all of our heart and being. This advice seems to run contrary to the practice of letting go.
The way to overcome the apparent contradiction between letting go and helping others is to cultivate a view that fuses compassion and wisdom. Compassion drives us to feel other being’s suffering and take appropriate action to help them overcome it. But wisdom helps us to remember that we are working in the realm of the mind where phenomena are empty of intrinsic existence. This is basically what is implied by mandalas that depict a spiritual being in sexual union with a consort. The consort, who is usually in female form, signifies emptiness whereas the male energy represents action and compassion.
Letting go can be difficult but the more we practice it, the easier it becomes. In fact, the choice we are presented with is simple. We can suffer and delude ourselves due to holding onto something that no longer exists. Or we can be courageous, take a deep breath, and let go of mind-made reality at the same moment we experience it. When we are courageous in this manner, we start to taste freedom because we understand that in fact, there is nothing to let go of. We reach a point where we have let go of having to let go. How splendid!
Reference: Van Gordon, W., Shonin, E., & García-Campayo, J. (2017). The mandala of the present moment. Mindfulness, Advanced Online Edition, DOI: 10.1007/s12671-017-0779-x.
Without exception, everything that has happened in your life, every choice you have made, has brought you to where you are now. And where are you now? You are reading this blog post. Depending on your frame of mind, you will engage with the words in this post to a greater or lesser extent. This blog post, as well as every other experience and encounter you have ever had, will be a causal factor in terms of bringing you into contact with all of your future experiences. The process of accumulating experiences that each influence who we are and what we do, is called life. Perhaps we can think of life as a big snowball rolling down a hill. The snowball grows and accumulates snow as it rolls, and this accumulation – as well as the gradient and texture of the terrain – keeps causing the snowball’s weight, size, shape, velocity, and direction, to change.
If a person was to stop the snowball and look at it, they might only see a big ball of snow that they want to play with or take photographs of. Alternatively, if they have sufficient insight, they might see the snowball as the product of the journey it has undertaken. In this case, when they look at the snowball, they will see how it has grown, the choices it has made, the terrain and landscape it has passed through, and the different bumps and jumps it encountered along the way. The same applies when we look at ourselves and other people. If we have sufficient skill and insight, when we meet somebody we can glean understanding into the journey they have undertaken. We can see how they have grown, what motivates them, what scars they have accumulated, and whether they live only for themselves or for the betterment of humanity. Furthermore, based on the trajectory of their choices and journey thus far, we might be able to estimate the direction that they will go in next.
The difference between a skilled and mediocre meditator is that when the skilled meditator looks at a person, situation, or object, they see the whole story. They see that a person or object is comprised of its past, present, and future. If we can understand the trajectory that a person is travelling on, it means we are better able to decide what intervention, if any, might be possible to help shift that trajectory into one that will bring them wisdom and happiness.
Another difference between a skilled and mediocre meditator is that the skilled meditator doesn’t actually practice meditation. To practice meditation implies that a person tries to be mindful or regularly sits in meditation in order to cultivate mental tranquillity or clarity. However, the truth is that whether we know it or not, and whether we like it or not, we are all partaking in a meditation. This mediation is called life. Life brings us into contact with new experiences each moment of every day. These experiences are pregnant with wisdom. They are our teacher, if we want them to be. This applies to seemingly boring situations just as much as it does to circumstances that appear to be out of the ordinary or that we find challenging.
In other words, we don’t need to strain ourselves in meditation to look for spiritual insights because they are all around us. Everything we do, everything sound we hear, every person we meet, are opportunities to grow and encounter spiritual insight. All we have to do is open our eyes, heart, and mind. Don’t you see that you have been meditating since before the moment you were born? As soon as we realise we are partaking in a meditation, we start to wake up and see how each moment of our lives connects to, and influences, the next. Moreover, we encounter the complex web of the universe and begin to see how each moment of our lives connects to each moment of the life of every other living and non-living entity.
Meditation isn’t about sitting with our legs crossed and working ourselves into a state of calm. Rather, it is the art of fully experiencing every aspect of normal daily living and using it as the raw material to foster spiritual awakening. Meditation is both joyful and painful. There is nothing mystical about meditation. It is the process of allowing life to be our teacher. Eating a piece of toast is our teacher. Getting drenched by the rain is our teacher. Missing the bus is our teacher. Being cheated out of money is our teacher. Making love is our teacher. Taking a dump is our teacher. The death of a loved one is our teacher. Winning is our teacher. Losing is our teacher. Getting old is our teacher. Meditation is being awake to what is unfolding in front of us and having the courage to embrace life as the training ground for cultivating our full potential for love and wisdom.